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Chemical Weapons

North Korea has at least eight industrial facilities that can produce chemical agents, and probably nearly twice this many; however, the production rate and types of munitions are uncertain. Presumably, sarin, tabun, phosgene, adamsite, prussic acid and a family of mustard gases, comprising the basis of KPA chemical weapons, are produced here. North Korea has the capability to produce nerve gas, blood agents, and the mustard-gas family of chemical weapons.

There are at least five sources for the locations and characteristics of North Korean chemical weapons facilities:

The 1999 South Korean White Paper states that "At present, North Korea maintains eight chemical factories, four research facilities, and six storage facilities for mass producing chemical agents" without providing further detail or a map of locations. The South Korean White Paper sources provide maps without placenames, and are the only source to indicate the location of chemical weapons storage facilities [the 1997 version of the map clearly transposes the labels for the production and research facilities]. There is generally fairly good agreement between the two version of this map, with the annoying exception of the second production facility in the vicinity of Hamhung [tentatively identified as Sinhung], and the displacement of the coastal facility that is apparently Ch'ongjin. It is not immediately possible to associate specific major North Korean military facilities with the indicated chemical weapons storage site locations on these maps. The locations generally seem to lie in fair proximity to airfields, though this may be entirely coincidental, as both airfields and military facilities generally are profoundly abundant in such close proximity to the Demilitarized Zone, the immediate precincts of which are highly militarized.

There is general agreement among these various sources that the North Korean chemical weapons program is centered in three or four research facilities, along with at least seven or eight production facilities, for a total of between ten and twelve locations. The four probable research facilities may be fairly readily identified as being located at Hamhung, Kanggye, Pyongsong, and Sinuiju, in addition to the probable training facility at Hungnam. However, there are as many as fifteen suggested locations for the production facilities.

The number of possible production locations may be reduced to a dozen by the expedient of assuming that different sources use different placenames to refer to a single facility located between the named population centers. Anju [N3937' E12539'] mentioned only in LOC and Pyongwon [probably N3918' E12535'] mentioned only by CJH are probably the same facility at a location intermediate between these two population centers]. This facility may also account for the "Pyongyang" facility mentioned only in JPRS-UMA. Similarly, the Nampo [N3843' E12524'] facility mentioned by JPRS-UMA may be the same one referred to as Sariwon [N3830' E12546'] by JPRS-TMD.

The Library of Congress source uses more than a few non-standard placename transliterations. Seven of the nine facilities mentioned in the Library of Congress source can be readily associated with locations on the map from the ROK source. The Sinhung association is ambiguous, since there are several populated places with this placename, the location of one of which is not obviously inconsistent with one of the locations on the ROK maps, the identity of which is otherwise obscure [and the location of which is somewhat uncertain, since the position of this facility differs noticeably between the two editions of the map]. Within the limits of the cartographic license normally associated with such a small map, there appears to be generally good agreement between the LOC and ROK sources. The JPRS-TND source attributes chemical facility locations tot the 1991 DIA publication "North Korea: The Foundations for Military Strength," but the publication itself does not appear to include this information. Furthermore, the JPRS-TND source mentions only three locations attested to by the other sources, and includes some facilities with unidentified locations.

It is possible to exclude Kusong, Wonsan and Yonan, which are attested by only single secondary derivative sources of uncertain reliability.

14	   Site             Lat      Lon                SOURCES
	                                         LOC  ROK  CJH  TND  UMA

 1 	 P Aoji             N4231'  E13023'     +     +
 2	 P Ch'ongjin        N4147'  E12946'     +     +              +
 3	RP Hamhung Hamhng   N3954'  E12732'     +     +    +    +    +
 4	TP Hungnam          N3949   E12737'                     +    + 
 5	 P Hwasun           N3952'  E12632'           ??
 6	 P Hyesan           N4124'  E12810'                +    + 
 7	R  Kanggye          N4058'  E12635'     +     +    +    + 
 8	 P Manp'o           N4108'  E12621'     +     + 
 9	R  Pyongsong        N3915'  E12551'                     +
10	 P Sakchu  Sakju    N4023'  E12502'                +    +
11	 P Sinhung         ?N4011' ?E12733'     +     ??
12	RP Sinuiju          N4006'  E12423'     +     + 
13	 P Sunchon Sunch'n  N3925'  E12550'     +     +    +    +    +

14	 P Anju             N3937'  E12539'     +
	 P Pyongwon         N3918'  E12535'                +
	 P Pyongyang        N39     E12540'                          + 

15	 P Sariwon          N3830'  E12546'                     +
	 P Nampo            N3843'  E12524'                          + 

16	 P Kusong           N3958'  E12515'                          + 
17	 P Wonsan           N3909'  E12726'                     +
18	 P Yonan            N3754'  E12609'                          + 


 	 S Anbyon           N3905'  E12729'                     ?? 
 	 S Ch'obong-ni [?]  N3845'  E12605'          +
	 S Onjong-ni        N3918'  E12604'          +
  	 S Masang-dong      N3910   E12549'          +
 	 S Nuchonri         N3815'  E12610'          +
 	 S Pyonggang        N3830'  E12730'          +
 	 S Sinchon          N3820'  E12530'          +


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