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Ababil-100 / Al-Samoud

Since the Commission's monitoring system in the missile area became operational in August 1994, Iraq's non-proscribed activities in the missile area have moved closer to a production phase. [S/1997/301] Iraq has resumed its acquisition efforts in support of its missile facilities. Iraq placed a number of orders, both directly and indirectly (through middlemen and front companies), for the purchase of equipment, technologies, supplies and material for both missile- and non-missile-related activities at these facilities. Iraq explained that many of these efforts were in direct support of its Ababil-100 program for indigenous development and production of surface-to-surface missiles with ranges between 100 and 150 kilometers. [S/1995/864]

After August 1995 Iraq admitted that since the adoption of resolution 687 (1991), it had carried out an undeclared program to modify the Volga/SA-2 surface-to-air missile system to a surface-to-surface application with a range of over 100 kilometers. At the initiation of the monitoring system in 1993, the Commission decided that it would be sufficient to monitor, including with cameras, sites where main maintenance activities were carried out on Volga systems. As Iraq's undisclosed program comprised flight tests of this system, the Commission decided, in January 1996, to modify monitoring modalities to include tagging of all Volga missiles similar to other tagged missiles in Iraq. [S/1996/848]

Iraq has continued its development of the Al-Samoud missile system, which has a declared range of less than 150 kilometers. The term "al-Samoud is not attested outside of UNSCOM and derivative documents. The phrase "Al-Sumood" may be translated as "steadfastness" or "endurance" -- conveying a sense of national endurance of suffering. The Sumood of the Palestinians gave way to the Intifada in 1987. Among the meanings understood from the root "samada" is the raising of ones head up proudly or in disdain. [The rather unlikely kindred homonym "Samood" occurs frequently in the Koran, also transliterated "Thamud", to refer to a tribe that rejected the teachings of the Prophet, with meanings that include The Mud, The Mire, The Bog etc...]

The issue of reuse by Iraq of Volga surface-to-air missile components in the development of the Al-Samoud missile continues to be unresolved.[S/1998/920] UNSCOM has expressed serious concern over the use by Iraq of certain key components taken from the Volga surface-to-air missile system and modifying them for use in a short-range missile system. These modifications could, in turn, enable Iraq to modify the Volga missiles into a proscribed surface-to-surface mode. [S/1998/529] The covert G-l program, to convert surface-to-surface missiles to a proscribed surface-to-surface role, included secret flight tests and an undeclared facility to support this (1993-1994).[UNSCOM 03 June 98]

Around August 1991, Iraq started a secret project to construct a surface-to-surface missile called "J-1" without notifying the UN Special Commission [UNSCOM] as required by the Security Council resolutions. There were key similarities between the J-1 missile and the Fahad missiles that were under development in Iraq before the adoption of resolution 687 (1991). Iraq's development of the J-1 surface-to-surface missile was based on the Volga/SA2 surface-to-air missile with certain modifications, particularly to its engine and guidance and control system. During the period when work on the J-1 project was ongoing, UNSCOM inspectors were told by Iraq that it was merely developing a non-proscribed Ababil-100 missile that it had declared to UNSCOM. As it is known now, the Ababil 100 had some specifications similar to the J-1. [SOURCE ]

Since the missile monitoring system was established in 1994, Iraq achieved considerable progress in the development of the Samoud liquid propellant missile system with a declared range of 149 kilometres. A number of static tests of missile engines were conducted. In October 1997, Iraq carried out its first declared flight test of a Samoud missile. This flight test was declared a success by Iraq and demonstrated a significant step in Iraq's indigenous missile production capabilities. Iraq continued active flight test activities in 1998, and had conducted a total of eight flight tests as of June 2000.

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