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DF-11 [CSS-7]

The DF-11 (M-11 / CSS-7) is the Chinese replacement for the Scud-series of missiles. As of late 1999 the US estimated that China had deployed 40 DF-11s, with an eventual force goal of as many as 500 short-range missiles by 2005.

It was originally shown at the 1987 Beijing air show as a two-stage missile with 1000 kms range carrying a 400-500 kilogram payload. This M-18 missile had the longest range of any of the current M-series missiles. The M-series missiles all use solid fuel, and operational preparation time is short. They are all transported by highly-mobile cross- country trucks which have the capacity to launch the missiles. Due to MTCR considerations, China exported the M-11 system variant to Pakistan as a single-stage, solid-fueled missile with a range of 120-295 kms carrying a 500 kg (or perhaps 800 kg) warhead.

Although the DF-11 has a range of 300 km, the Chinese continued work on a version with a longer range. China's 50th anniversary military parade on 01 October 1999 marked the first public Chinese display of a new version of the M-11 short-range missile, the CSS-7 Mod 2, more commonly known as the M-11 follow-on. The new Mod 2 missile about two meters longer than the Mod 1, and is believed to have a longer range, a larger warhead and greater accuracy than earlier M-11. The accuracy of these missiles will improve in the future if China is able to apply Global Positioning System (GPS) guidance technology to provide highly accurate location information for missile launchers or pre-surveyed launch sites.

China sold at least 34 M-11 missiles to Pakistan in November 1992. US imagery intelligence satellites provided imagery showing M-11 missile canisters being delivered at the Sargodha air base near Lahore, but not the M-11 missiles. But the Clinton Administration said they would need direct photographic proof by spy satellites to determine whether the Chinese sale to Pakistan had occurred, in order to impose Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) sanctions against China for selling missiles to Pakistan. Sanctions were imposed on China in August 1993 for selling missile components to Pakistan that were barred under MTCR. The sanctions were lifted in October 1994 after the Chinese pledged not to sell any more missiles.

In 1999 Pakistan displayed two "Shaheen" missiles in a military parade, which were apparently the improved longer-range CSS-7 Mod 2.


Contractor Sanjiang Space Group
OperatorSecond Artillery Corps
ConfigurationSingle Stage
Length [meters]11.25
Diameter [meters]0.88
Mass [kilograms]6,350
First Flight19??
Range (km)300
Re-entry Vehicle Mass (kg)500
Warhead Yield350 KT or conventional
CEP (meters)200
Conventional Lethal Radius
[soft target]
10 meters [crater]
60 meters [unitary]
250 meters [submunition]
Launch Preparation Time30-45 minutes

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