bbbbb Annex J, unlike other annexes to the Memorandum of Understanding, contains no data. Instead, it codifies the rules for precision of data, for preparation of site diagrams, for photographs, and for the measurement of ICBM and SLBM missile and stage lengths. As an integral part of the Memorandum of Understanding, which is, itself, an integral part of the Treaty, Annex J is legally binding and has equivalent status to any other portion of the Treaty.

bbbbb Paragraph 1 of Annex J specifies the precision with which geographic coordinates are to be provided. Unlike the Memorandum of Understanding to the INF Treaty, in which coordinates are specified to the nearest second for some facilities, geographic coordinates under START are, in general, given only to the nearest minute. This precision was agreed upon in view of stated Soviet concerns that more precise coordinates might provide information of military value. Paragraph 1 provides an exception to this general rule in cases where facilities (or locations) are within one minute of latitude and longitude of each other (i.e., within roughly one nautical mile of each other) and are of the same type and appearance. Furthermore, while paragraph 1 specifies that coordinates of silo launchers in a silo launcher group at an ICBM base and launch control centers are to be given only to the nearest minute, paragraph 3 of Annex J provides a mechanism for requiring additional information on these and other facilities if the inspecting Party believes that two or more facilities within one minute of each other cannot be differentiated. As specified in paragraph 6 of Article VIII of the Treaty, geographic coordinates are not made public but, at Soviet insistence, are included in a separate classified Agreement on the Exchange of Geographic Coordinates and Site Diagrams. The provision of paragraph 1, that each Party will use the system of coordinates that is commonly employed by that Party, is necessary since the Parties use different models of the surface of the earth in establishing coordinates. However, the actual locational differences between the two coordinate systems are on the order of only 200 meters or less.

bbbbb Paragraph 2 of Annex J specifies that large training facilities and test ranges (i.e., those with an area greater than 10 square kilometers) shall not have site diagrams but shall be identified by geographic coordinates on the perimeter. Site diagrams of areas larger than 10 square kilometers would be of such a scale as not to be usable.

bbbbb Paragraph 3 of Annex J provides an opportunity for a Party to raise problems with two locations within one nautical mile of each other that the observing Party considers to have the same appearance. The owning Party is then obligated either to provide clarifying information or to provide more accurate coordinates. The reference in paragraph 3 of Annex J to paragraph 7 of Section I of the Notification Protocol is in error.Paragraph 6 of Section I of the Notification Protocol is used to raise the issue; paragraph 7 of Section I of the Notification Protocol is used to provide the clarifying information or more precise coordinates. This error will be corrected through diplomatic channels or within the framework of the Joint Compliance and Inspection Commission.

bbbbb Paragraph 4 of Annex J codifies the basic obligation to provide site diagrams. Initial site diagrams were exchanged on August 30, 1991; site diagrams for new facilities are provided at the time the new facility notification is given in accordance with paragraph 10 of Section I of the Notification Protocol. Paragraph 4 of Annex J further provides basic requirements for site diagrams and specifies that they should include geographic coordinates. Because of this, and in accordance with the provisions of Section 6 of Article VIII of the Treaty, site diagrams are not released to the public, although copies have been submitted to the Senate for its information.

bbbbbParagraph 5 of Annex J provides specialized rules for site diagrams of ICBM bases. Such rules are necessary because of the large size of such bases and the disparity between the practices of the Parties. Note that for rail garrisons the designation" of each parking site is required to be shown on the site diagram; such designations are used in specifying parking sites at which cooperative measures are carried out in accordance with paragraph 1(b) of Article XII of the Treaty. Note, too, that for restricted areas and maintenance facilities, only the approximate boundaries" of such areas and facilities are required, since they comprise relatively large areas.

bbbbb Paragraph 6 of Annex J provides more rules for site diagrams associated with mobile ICBM bases. Because deployment areas are so large, a site diagram of them would not be useful; therefore deployment areas are identified by geographic coordinates. The nature of rail garrisons is such that there is no need to draw boundaries. This is so because trains are limited to movement along track, and to support from structures that are either rail served or located in the immediate vicinity of the track. To avoid ambiguity, the paragraph specifies that such site diagrams must include all parking sites, rail entrances and exits, rail lines, and associated structures large enough to contain items of inspection. Structures where reentry vehicles are stored are specifically exempted from inspection in view of the sensitivity of such storage.

bbbbb Paragraphs 7 and 8 of Annex J provide specific regulations for site diagrams of SLBM bases and air bases for heavy bombers and former heavy bombers.

bbbbb Paragraph 9 of Annex J provides general rules for site diagrams. Subparagraph 9(a) provides general rules intended to standardize all site diagrams. Subparagraph 9(c) provides additional rules applicable to facilities subject to continuous monitoring, while subparagraph 9(b) provides rules for all other facilities. Separate rules for facilities subject to continuous monitoring and for other facilities are needed since inspectors have no access to the interior of facilities subject to continuous monitoring, but have special concerns with the boundary of the facility. In contrast, for other facilities subject to inspection, the interior is of prime concern. Subparagraph 9(b)(iv) specifies that, in the case of the construction or elimination of structures at facilities, updated site diagrams need only be provided during pre-inspection procedures. This provision was agreed in order to lessen the burden of maintaining updated site diagrams.

bbbbb Paragraph 10 of Annex J specifies the photographs required and provides rules for ensuring adequate quality of photographs exchanged between the Parties. The paragraph calls for photographs to be appended to this memorandum". All photographs that were exchanged on July 31, 1991, in accordance with an exchange of letters signed between heads of delegations on that date, have been appended to the Memorandum of Understanding. Future photographs will be exchanged through diplomatic channels in accordance with paragraph 3(c) of Section I of the Notification Protocol. Additional photographs may be taken during technical characteristics exhibitions, distinguishability exhibitions, and baseline exhibitions, as provided for in paragraph 15 to Section XIV and paragraph 10 to Section XV of the Inspection Protocol.

bbbbb Paragraph 11 of Annex J specifies that data shall be included in Annexes A, B, and C to the Memorandum of Understanding for ICBMs, SLBMs, and heavy bombers based or stored at the specified bases or facilities. This ensures, inter alia, that visiting strategic offensive arms need not trigger an update to Annexes A, B, or C, provided that the visit" does not constitute a change in where the item is based" or stored." In any event, movements of strategic offensive arms are notified in accordance with Section II of the Notification Protocol.

bbbbb Paragraph 12(a) of Annex J establishes the precision with which linear measurements are recorded in the Memorandum of Understanding. Paragraph 6 of Section I of the Throw-Weight Protocol specifies that throw-weight will be recorded to the nearest 50 kilograms. While the Treaty does not specify the precision to which launch weight or stage weight is to be recorded, the Parties agreed during the negotiations that launch and stage weight would be recorded to the nearest tenth of a metric ton (i.e., to the nearest 100 kilograms). Paragraph 12(b) of Annex J makes it clear that separate technical data are required on all variants of ICBMs, SLBMs, heavy bombers, and long-range nuclear ALCMs.

bbbbb Paragraph 13 serves to standardize the way in which the length of an assembled ICBM or SLBM is measured. Subparagraph 13(b) is made necessary because of the design of certain ICBMs and SLBMs, in which the front section or reentry vehicles are inside the airframes.

bbbbb Paragraphs 14 and 15 of Annex J provide two separate methods for measuring the length of the first stage of ICBMs and SLBMs, depending on the purpose for the measurement. For purposes of determining a new type on the basis of a change in first stage length (with or without a change in throw-weight), it is necessary that measurements be made between two points that are difficult to alter without fundamentally redesigning the first stage. Thus, as indicated in paragraph 15, the Parties have agreed to use the length of the solid rocket motor case or the liquid propellant tank as the first stage length. Lengths determined in accordance with paragraph 15 are only provided when required, i.e., when needed to demonstrate a new type based on a change in first stage length or whenever a new type of mobile ICBM is declared. In addition, for the SS-25 and the Peacekeeper, the lengths that are specified in paragraph 15 are used to determine the size criteria for certain types of inspections under the Treaty, in accordance with Annex 12 to the Inspection Protocol.

bbbbb Such a length is not needed for other Treaty purposes, such as verifying the identity of missiles or staqes encountered during inspections. The Parties therefore, in paragraph 14, specify a different method of determining first stage length for these purposes. Separate provisions are provided for ICBMs and SLBMs maintained, stored, and transported in stages and for ICBMs and SLBMs stored or transported as assembled missiles. These separate provisions are necessary, since, in some assembled designs, there is no uniform point of joining between first stage and upper stages. The lengths determined in accordance with paragraph 14 of Annex J are listed in Annex F to the Memorandum of Understanding.

bbbbb Inasmuch as some ICBM or SLBM designs could use, for example, raceways or stabilizing fins, paragraph 16 of Annex J specifies that such protruding elements will be excluded in determining the diameter of ICBM or SLBM stages.